break : 常用词，含义广泛，多指猛然用力将坚硬物打破或损坏。
- The dish fell to the floor and broke.
- Charles is always breaking things.
- She fell and broke her arm (= broke the bone in her arm).
- I dropped the vase and it broke into pieces.
- I think I've broken your phone.
- I picked it up and the handle broke off.
- We heard the sound of breaking glass.
burst : 指某物因内部外部压力过大而出现严重破裂、爆开或账破。
- I hate it when balloons burst.
- Suddenly the door burst open (= opened suddenly and forcefully) and police officers rushed in.
- The river was threatening to burst its banks.
- If I eat any more cake I'll burst (= I cannot eat anything else)!
crack : 多指因长期使用或经受压力，物体表现呈现裂纹、裂口或破裂、裂开，但一般没成碎片。
- A stone hit the window and cracked the glass.
- I cracked my tooth as I fell.
- The walls cracked and the roof collapsed in the earthquake.
crush : 指用力把东西压破或变形。
- The package had been badly crushed in the post.
- Add three cloves of crushed garlic.
- His arm was badly crushed in the car accident.
fracture : 比crack的破裂程度更深更严重，常指断裂，医学上指骨折。
- She fractured her skull in the accident.
- Two of her ribs fractured when she was thrown from her horse.
- A fractured pipe at a steelworks has leaked 20 tons of oil into the Severn estuary.
shatter : 指破裂为许多支离破碎的碎片，多用指易碎事物。
- The glass shattered into a thousand tiny pieces.
- His leg was shattered in the accident.
smash : 指突然而猛烈地重击某物，使之破碎或完全变形。
- Rioters ran through the city, smashing windows and looting shops.
- She dropped her cup and watched it smash to pieces/to smithereens on the stone floor.