Passage 1


You’ve temporarily misplaced your cell phone and anxiously retrace your steps to try to find it. Or perhaps you never let go of your phone—it’s always in your hand, your pocket, or your bag, ready to be answered or consulted at a moment’s notice. When your battery life runs down at the end of the day, you feel that yours is running low as well. New research shows that there’s a psychological reason for such extreme phone dependence: According to the attachment theory, for some of us, our phone serves the same function as the teddy bear we clung to in childhood.

Attachment theory proposes that our early life experiences with parents responsible for our well-being, are at the root of our connections to the adults with whom we form close relationships. Importantly, attachment in early life can extend to inanimate objects. Teddy bears, for example, serve as “transitional objects.” The teddy bear, unlike the parent, is always there. We extend our dependence on parents to these animals, and use them to help us move to an independent sense of self.

A cell phone has the potential to be a “compensatory attachment” object. Although phones are often castigated for their addictive potential, scientists cite evidence that supports the idea that “healthy, normal adults also report significant emotional attachment to special objects”

Indeed, cell phones have become a pervasive feature of our lives: The number of cell phone users exceeds the total population of the planet. The average amount of mobile or smartphone use in the U.S. is 3.3 hours per day. People also like to be near their phones: A 2013 survey cited by the Hungarian team. Nearly as many people report being distressed when they’re separated from their phone. Phones have distinct advantages. They can be kept by your side and they provide a social connection to the people you care about. Even if you’re not talking to your friends, lover, or family, you can keep their photos close by, read their messages, and follow them on social media. You can track them in real time but also look back on memorable moments together. These channels help you “feel less alone”.

Passage 2


Many countries have adopted the principle of sustainable development it can combat against environment deterioration in air quality, water quality and …viable role for every member in the world. Production .health education in developing countries. But some argue that it’s a vague idea, some organizations may use it in its own interests, whether environmental or economic is the nature of interests. Others argue that sustainable development in developing countries overlook the local customs, habitude and people.

Whereas interdependence is desirable during times of peace, war necessitates competition and independence. Tariffs and importation limits strengthen a country’s economic vitality while potentially weakening the economies of its enemies. Moreover, protectionism in the weapons industry is highly desirable during such circumstances because reliance on another state for armaments can be fatal.

For the most part, economists emphasize the negative effects of protectionism. It reduces international trade and raises prices for consumers. In addition, domestic firms that receive protection have less incentive to innovate. Although free trade puts uncompetitive firms out of business, the displaced workers and resources are ultimately allocated to other areas of the economy.

Imposing quotas is a method used to protect trade, since foreign companies cannot ship more products regardless of how low they set their prices. Countries that hope to help a new industry thrive locally often impose quotas on imported goods. They believe that such restrictions allow entities in the new industry to develop their own competitive advantages and produce the products efficiently. Developing countries often use this argument to justify their restrictions on foreign goods.

Protectionism’s purpose is usually to create jobs for domestic workers. Companies that operate in industries protected by quotas hire workers locally. Another disadvantage of quotas is the reduction in the quality of products in the absence of competition from foreign companies. Without competition, local firms are less likely to invest in innovation and improve their products and services. Domestic sellers don’t have an incentive to enhance efficiency and lower their prices, and under such conditions, consumers eventually pay more for products and services they could receive from foreign competitors. As local companies lose competitiveness, they become pressured to outsource jobs. In the long-run, increasing protectionism commonly leads to layoffs and economic slowdown.


Passage 1

来源:2016 《中国的中医药》白皮书双语版

Humanity has created a colorful global civilization in the long course of its development, and the civilization of China is an important component of the world civilization harboring great diversity. As a representative feature of Chinese civilization, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a medical science that was formed and developed in the daily life of the people and in the process of their fight against diseases over thousands of years. It has made a great contribution to the nation’s procreation and the country’s prosperity, in addition to producing a positive impact on the progress of human civilization.

TCM has created unique views on life, on fitness, on diseases and on the prevention and treatment of diseases during its long history of absorption and innovation. It represents a combination of natural sciences and humanities, embracing profound philosophical ideas of the Chinese nation. As ideas on fitness and medical models change and evolve, traditional Chinese medicine has come to underline a more and more profound value. TCM and Western medicine have their different strengths. They work together in China to protect people from diseases and improve public health. This has turned out to be one of the important features and notable strengths of Chinese medical service system.

Passage 2


Food for all is, for mankind, the most fundamental right of survival, which serves as the basis for all other human rights. Great progress has been made in the global agricultural development. Yet hunger and poverty have remained a “silent crisis”,troubling all human beings. Over 800 million poor people in the world still face the threat of food shortages and malnutrition. To promote agricultural development and eradicate hunger and poverty remains a major challenge of the world and a common responsibility of mankind. The international community may join hands to enhance agricultural cooperation and pay greater attention to the calls of developing countries, in particular certain least developed countries (LDCs). Efforts should be made to curb trade protectionism and increase the technical and financial assistance to the agricultural sector of the LDCs so as to raise the global agricultural productivity and increase food security.

As the largest developing country, China will always be an active force for safeguarding world food security. Although China faces quite a few difficulties ahead in its agricultural development, we will continue to work tirelessly to deliver on our commitment through actions. We will ensure adequate food supply mainly on our own. We are ready to work with countries around the world to create a world of sustainable development that is free from hunger and poverty.