小词详解 | chronic

小词详解 | chronic
chronic 英 [ˈkrɒnɪk] 美 [ˈkrɑːnɪk]

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外刊例句

  • India has two main drags on economic growth. One is the difficulty of finding a job, especially in the places people live. The other is a chronic shortage of cheap housing.
    印度的经济增长受两大因素拖累。一是找工作很困难,尤其是在本乡本土。二是廉价住房长期短缺。
    ——《经济学人》
  • And the older a person is, the more likely he or she is to have multiple chronic illnesses.
    一个人年龄越大,他/她就越有可能患上多种慢性疾病。
    ——《纽约时报》

基本释义

[adjective] (of an illness) persisting for a long time or constantly recurring
[形容词] (指疾病)持续很长时间或不断复发

深入解读

Chronic 一词源自希腊语 khronos (时间),15世纪初进入英语时主要用于形容疾病“长期的、慢性的”或“难以治愈的”,比如:

  • 慢性支气管炎
    chronic bronchitis
  • 慢性关节炎
    chronic arthritis
  • 慢性哮喘
    chronic asthma

用来形容人时,则表示“长期患病的”或“积习难改的、有痼癖的”,比如:

  • 长期病号
    a chronic invalid
  • 老是发牢骚者
    a chronic grumbler
  • 老酒鬼/老烟民
    a chronic drunkard/smoker

从疾病扩展而来, chronic 还可以用来形容问题、困难等不好的事情“长期存在的、难以根除的”,比如:

  • 短期内迅速治愈英国经济顽症的灵丹妙药并不存在。
    There is no easy short-term solution to Britain's chronic economic malaise.

另外,在英式英语的口语中, chronic 还可以表示“糟透的、拙劣的”,比如:

  • 这部电影简直糟透了。
    The film was just chronic.

名著用例

Being a levelheaded individual who could give points to not a few in point of shrewd observation, he also remarked on his very dilapidated hat and slouchy wearing apparel generally, testifying to a chronic impecuniosity.
布卢姆先生是个头脑冷静的人,观察敏锐,轻易不落人后。从破旧的帽子和浑身上下的衣着邋遢,他看穿了那是个患慢性缺钱症的人。

出自爱尔兰现代主义作家詹姆斯·乔伊斯(James Joyce)于1922年出版的长篇小说《尤利西斯》(Ulysses)。《尤利西斯》作为意识流小说的代表作,被誉为20世纪百大英文小说之首,并被奉为20世纪最伟大的小说。

同近义词

  • persistent: continuing to exist or endure over a prolonged period
  • perennial: lasting or existing for a long or apparently infinite time; enduring or continually recurring
  • incessant: (of something regarded as unpleasant) continuing without pause or interruption.
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