区别辨析hurt、injure、wound、harm、damage与disable

hurt、injure、wound、harm、damage与disable这些动词均有“损害、伤害”之意。

hurt : 普通用词,较口语化,侧重指给有生命的东西造成机体上或精神、感情上的或轻或重的伤害。

  • Tell me where it hurts.
    告诉我哪儿疼。
  • My head hurts.
    我的头疼。
  • She says that her ear hurts her.
    她说她的耳朵疼。
  • Emma hurt her back when she fell off her horse.
    埃玛从马上摔下来,背部受了伤。
  • Several people were seriously/badly hurt in the explosion.
    有数人在这次爆炸中受了重伤。
  • She criticized my writing quite severely and that hurt.
    她很严厉地批评了我写的东西,让我很伤心。
  • He was badly hurt by the end of his marriage.
    婚姻的结束深深地伤害了他。

injure较hurt正式,多用于有生命的事物。既可指伤害别人的事物。即可指伤害别人的健康、外貌、自尊心、名誉等,又可指使别人受伤或东西受损,同时含有受伤害部分至少暂时丧失功能的意味。

  • A bomb exploded at the embassy, injuring several people.
    一颗炸弹在大使馆爆炸,造成数人受伤。
  • She fell and injured her shoulder.
    她摔伤了肩膀。
  • He was badly injured in the crash.
    他在车祸中受了重伤。
  • He claimed that working too hard was injuring his health.
    他声称工作过度辛劳损害了他的健康。

wound : 专指对身体的重伤,尤指在战斗中受的伤,强调外部创伤;也可指精神方面的伤害。

  • Flying glass wounded her in the face and neck.
    飞溅的玻璃划伤了她的脸和颈部。
  • The police chief was badly wounded in the explosion.
    警长在爆炸中受了重伤。

harm : 主要用于有生命的东西,语气略强于injure,指引起严重的痛苦和损伤;有时也用于抽象事物,指造成任何不良后果。

  • Thankfully no one was harmed in the accident.
    谢天谢地,没有人在事故中受伤。
  • The government's reputation has already been harmed by a series of scandals.
    政府的声誉已因一系列丑闻受到了损害。

damage : 通常指对无生命物体的损害,并有降低其价值,破坏其功能等的后果。

  • Many buildings were badly damaged during the war.
    许多建筑物在战争中严重受损。
  • It was a scandal that damaged a lot of reputations.
    这是一桩使人名誉扫地的丑闻。

disable : 强调使伤残。

  • She was disabled in the accident.
    她在那次事故中致残。

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