hurt : 普通用词，较口语化，侧重指给有生命的东西造成机体上或精神、感情上的或轻或重的伤害。
- Tell me where it hurts.
- My head hurts.
- She says that her ear hurts her.
- Emma hurt her back when she fell off her horse.
- Several people were seriously/badly hurt in the explosion.
- She criticized my writing quite severely and that hurt.
- He was badly hurt by the end of his marriage.
- A bomb exploded at the embassy, injuring several people.
- She fell and injured her shoulder.
- He was badly injured in the crash.
- He claimed that working too hard was injuring his health.
wound : 专指对身体的重伤，尤指在战斗中受的伤，强调外部创伤；也可指精神方面的伤害。
- Flying glass wounded her in the face and neck.
- The police chief was badly wounded in the explosion.
harm : 主要用于有生命的东西，语气略强于injure，指引起严重的痛苦和损伤；有时也用于抽象事物，指造成任何不良后果。
- Thankfully no one was harmed in the accident.
- The government's reputation has already been harmed by a series of scandals.
damage : 通常指对无生命物体的损害，并有降低其价值，破坏其功能等的后果。
- Many buildings were badly damaged during the war.
- It was a scandal that damaged a lot of reputations.
disable : 强调使伤残。
- She was disabled in the accident.