区别辨析house、building、dwelling、shelter、habitation、home与residence

house、building、dwelling、shelter、habitation、home与residence这些名词均含有“居住处”之意。

house : 中性词,泛指一切供居住的建筑物,尤指适合一家一户居住的房屋。

  • a detached/semi-detached house
    独立式/半独立式住宅
  • to buy/rent a house
    买/租房子
  • house prices
    房价
  • She lives in a little house in (US on) Cross Street.
    她住在十字街上的一所小房子里。

building : 泛指一切建筑物,不限于居住的房子。

  • The once-empty site was now covered with buildings.
    一度空荡荡的地方现在布满了建筑物。
  • The building is part of our national heritage.
    这个建筑是我们民族遗产的一部分。

dwelling : 正式用词,仅指人们居住的任何建筑物。

  • There is an estimated shortfall of some five million dwellings across the country.
    据估计全国缺少约500万套房屋。

shelter : 可指长期或临时的住处,也指简陋或临时搭建的躲避风雨的场所。

  • an air-raid shelter
    防空洞
  • They opened a shelter to provide temporary housing for the city's homeless.
    他们开设了一个收容所,为该市的无家可归者提供临时的住宿。
  • The trees gave/provided some shelter from the rain.
    这些树遮了一些雨。

habitation : 指长久或固定的住所或居住地。

  • The road serves the scattered habitations along the coast.
    这条公路连接着海岸线上分散的聚居地。
  • The housing was unfit for human habitation.
    这种住房不适合居住。

home : 指永久住家时,带有家庭所特有的温暖、情感等气息。

  • The senator has two homes - an apartment in Washington and a house in Colorado.
    这位参议员有两个家——一个是位于华盛顿的公寓,另一个是科罗拉多的家。
  • He was living on the streets for three months, and his home was a cardboard box.
    他在大街上住了3个月了,他的家就是一个纸板箱。
  • Call me at home after four o'clock.
    4点之后打家里的电话找我。
  • women who decide to stay at home and look after their children
    决定留在家里带孩子的妇女
  • He left home (= stopped living with his parents) when he was 23.
    他23岁时离家独立生活。
  • More and more couples are setting up home together without getting married.
    越来越多的伴侣不结婚就组成家庭。

residence : 指大而堂皇的寓所或公馆,也指法律上的居住点。

  • the Governor's official residence
    总督官邸
  • a desirable family residence for sale (= for example, in an advertisement)
    待售的理想家居
  • 10 Downing Street is the British Prime Minister's official residence.
    唐宁街10号是英国首相的官邸。

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