区别辨析know、learn、comprehend与understand

know、learn、comprehend与understand这些动词都含“懂、知道、明了”之意。

know : 普通用词,多指通过学习、经验或他人传播而得到知识,含直接知道的意味。

  • She knows the name of every kid in the school.
    她知道学校里每个孩子的名字。
  • I don't know anything about this.
    我对此一无所知。
  • Even small amounts of these substances are known to cause skin problems.
    我们知道这类物质即使是一丁点也会损害皮肤。
  • The authorities know him to be (= know that he is) a cocaine dealer.
    当局知道他是个可卡因贩子。

learn : 通常指通过他人而获得消息或情况,侧重从不知到知的变化过程。

  • We were all shocked to learn of his death.
    听到他的死讯我们都很震惊。
  • I later learned (that) the message had never arrived.
    我后来听说从来就没有收到过那条消息。
  • I only learned about the accident later.
    那起事故我只是后来才听说的。

comprehend : 侧重熟悉了解的过程。

  • I fail to comprehend their attitude.
    我无法理解他们的态度。
  • He doesn't seem to comprehend the scale of the problem
    他似乎没意识到问题的严重性。
  • I'll never comprehend why she did what she did.
    我永远也不会明白她为什么那么做。
  • I don't think he fully comprehends that she won't be here to help him.
    我看他还没有充分意识到她是不会来这里帮他的。

understand : 指对事物已有彻底的认识,不仅知其性质、含义和细节,而且了解其内外的关系。

  • She explained the whole idea again, but I still didn't understand.
    她把整个想法又解释了一遍,但我还是不明白。
  • Is there anyone here who understands Arabic?
    这儿有人懂阿拉伯语吗?
  • We still don't fully understand how the brain works.
    我们还未完全弄懂大脑是如何工作的。

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