区别辨析lack、want、absence、shortage与scarcity

lack、want、absence、shortage与scarcity这些名词均含“缺乏、不足”之意。

lack : 普通用词,指部分或完全的不足。

  • Her only problem is a lack of confidence.
    她唯一的问题是缺乏自信。
  • Lack of sleep had made him irritable.
    睡眠不足令他烦躁易怒。
  • If he fails it won't be for/through lack of effort (= he has certainly tried).
    他若失败了,那肯定不是因为他努力不够。
  • We won't be going away this year - lack of funds, I'm afraid.
    今年我们恐怕不会去度假了——因为没钱。

want : 指完全或短缺某物,侧重缺少之物是必需的东西。使用范围比lack窄些。

  • For want of anything better to do I watched television for a while.
    由于没有什么更好的事情可做,我就看了一会儿电视。
  • If we fail it won't be for want of trying (= we have tried even if we fail).
    即使我们失败了,我们也曾努过力。

absence : 指某物根本不存在或完全短缺,或某人虽存在,但未到现场。

  • A new manager was appointed during/in her absence.
    她不在的时候任命了一位新经理。
  • She has had repeated absences from work this year.
    今年她屡次旷工。

shortage : 指不足,但侧重达不到规定的,需要的或已知应有的数量。

  • There's a shortage of food and shelter in the refugee camps.
    难民营里缺少足够的食物和住处。
  • The long hot summer has led to serious water shortages.
    这个夏天漫长而炎热,导致严重缺水。

scarcity : 指产量不足或缺乏某物难以应付或满足需要。

  • the scarcity of skilled workers
    缺乏熟练工人

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