The green eyed-monster 绿眼睛的怪物
Oh, beware, my lord, of jealousy!
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on.
Iago says this phrase as he plants doubts in Othello's mind about his wife's faithfulness. Merriam-Webster writes that he may have been evoking cats, given that they are "green-eyed creatures who toy with their prey before killing it."
Now "the green eyed-monster" is an idiomatic expression for the noun "jealousy."
Source: "Othello," Act 3, Scene 3
Break the ice
... And if you break the ice and do this feat,
Achieve the elder, set the younger free
For our access, whose hap shall be to have her
Will not so graceless be to be ingrate.
Tranio suggests if Petruchio can "break the ice," then he will be able to woo Katherina. By using the "ice" language, Shakespeare makes Katherina seem as cold as ice. Moreover, the fact that the ice needs to be broken suggests that she is hard to reach.
But the first actual usage of "break the ice" probably comes from Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of "Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans" — although in this case the phrase meant "to forge a path for others to follow," alluding to the breaking of ice to allow the navigation of boats.
"Break the ice" still means to get to know someone.
Source: "The Taming of the Shrew," Act 1, Scene 2
Wear my heart upon my sleeve
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
For daws to peck at: I am not what I am.
Devious Iago basically says that if his outward appearance reflected what he was thinking, then his heart would be on his sleeve for birds to peck at — which is not a good idea in his eyes. And so he adds that he is actually not what he appears to be.
Notably, Iago's motives for his antagonistic behavior are never fully revealed — so it is interesting that he is the character who has immortalized this phrase.
To show one's feelings openly.
Source: "Othello," Act 1, Scene 1
All of a sudden
I pray, sir, tell me, is it possible That love should of a sodaine take such hold?
How Shakespeare uses it: Apparently, Shakespeare might have thought that "all of a sudden" was a more poetic way of saying "suddenly" so he had the character Tranio in "The Taming of the Shrew" say it that way.
显然，莎士比亚认为all of a sudden比用suddenly一词更诗意。所以，他让特兰尼奥在《驯悍记》中这么说。
Although, Shakespeare wasn't the first to use "sudden" — John Greenwood used it in 1590.
The meaning is the same, although we now spell it "sudden" rather than "sodaine." The word is spelled in the modern way in newer printings of "The Taming of the Shrew."
Source: "The Taming of the Shrew," Act 1, Scene 1
A heart of gold
The king's a bawcock, and a heart of gold,
A lad of life, an imp of fame;
Of parents good, of fist most valiant. ...
King Henry disguises himself as a commoner in the play and asks Pistol, who is unaware of the disguise, whether he considers himself to be better than the king. Pistol responds with the above quote.
To be extremely kind and helpful.
Source: "Henry V," Act 4, Scene 1
In my heart of heart
Give me that man
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart,
As I do thee.
While speaking with Horatio, Hamlet says this phrase noting that if there's a man who is "not passion's slave" — aka, a master of his emotions — then he'll put him close to his heart. Using the language "heart's core" right before suggests that Hamlet means some very deep, central part of his heart/emotions.
Nowadays, we pluralize the second "heart" to say "in my heart of hearts." The phrase refers to one's inner-most, secret thoughts.
如今，我们常把第二个heart改为复数，使用in my heart of hearts这个短语，用来表达人内心最深、最隐秘的想法。
Source: "Hamlet," Act 3, Scene 2
Too much of a good thing
Why then, can one desire too much of a good thing?
Come, sister, you shall be the priest and marry us.
Give me your hand, Orlando. What do you say, sister?
This phrase may have been a proverb dating to the late 15th century, but Shakespeare was the one who has it immortalized in print.
Rosalind is pretending to be a man named Ganymede while she is with Orlando, with whom she is in love. He's also in love with Rosalind — and doesn't know she is Ganymede — and practices how he would woo Rosalind with Ganymede. At one point, Rosalind/Ganymede suggests that they have a pretend wedding, and asks if one can ever have too much of a good thing.
Too much good might backfire and be bad.
Source: "As You Like It," Act 4, Scene 1
All that glitters is not gold
All that glitters is not gold;
Often have you heard that told:
Many a man his life hath sold
But my outside to behold:
Gilded tombs do worms enfold."
Shakespeare seems to be the first person to have written this phrase, although the idea was not new.
The Prince of Morocco, one of Portia's suitors in "The Merchant of Venice," much choose out the correct casket to get his bride: one gold, one silver, and one lead. The gold one has an inscription on it which reads "All that glitters is not gold ... gilded tombs do worms enfold." But he picks it anyway ...
Basically, just because it's shiny and nice on the outside, doesn't mean that that's true of the inside.
Source: "The Merchant of Venice," Act 2, Scene 7
Thersites: "I will see you hanged, like clotpoles, ere I come any more to your tents: I will keep where there is wit stirring and leave the faction of fools."
Patroclus: "A good riddance."
Although it's not the first usage of "riddance," Shakespeare appears to be the first person to use the phrase "good riddance".
He also had Portia wish the Prince of Morocco "a gentle riddance" in "The Merchant of Venice".
People say this expression when they are happy to have gotten rid of someone or something useless or bad.
Source: "Troilus and Cressida," Act 2, Scene 1
Love is blind
...But love is blind and lovers cannot see
The pretty follies that themselves commit;...
Technically, Chaucer first wrote the phrase "For loue is blynd alday and may nat see." But Shakespeare was the one who popularized it.
In the scene, Jessica has disguised herself as a boy to see her lover, Lorenzo, but feels quite "ashamed" of her get-up. Still, she comments that love is blind and people are unable to see the shortcomings of their lovers.
The meaning of the phrase is more or less unchanged.
Source: "The Merchant of Venice," Act 2, Scene 6