区别辨析assume、presume、suppose、guess与postulate

这些动词均含为“假设,猜想,推测”之意。

assume :指有很少或完全无根据的武断推测或不合逻辑的推理。

  • Let us assume for a moment that the plan succeeds.
    咱们暂时假设计划成功。
  • She would, he assumed, be home at the usual time.
    他认为,她会在通常时间回到家的。

presume :侧重以过去经验或根据现实的某些感觉把某事认定为是事实。

  • I presumed him to be her husband.
    我料想那就是她丈夫。
  • Little is known of the youngest son; it is presumed that he died young.
    对于最小的儿子一般所知甚少,据推测他已经夭亡。

suppose :常用词,意义较广泛,指缺乏确切事实,根据一些现象进行的推测,也可指为论证而提出合乎逻辑推理的某种假定,有时仅表示自己的意见。

  • I had supposed his wife a younger woman.
    我原以为他妻子要更年轻。
  • Why do you suppose he resigned?
    你凭什么推断他辞职了呢?

guess :常用词,指毫无根据仅凭个人主观臆断或碰运气的猜测。

  • We can only guess at her reasons for leaving.
    对她离去的原因我们只能猜测。

postulate :指为证实一个理论的正确性而进行的假设。

  • They postulated a 500-year lifespan for a plastic container.
    他们假定塑料容器的寿命为500年。

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