区别辨析ensure、insure、assure、guarantee、pledge与promise

ensure、insure、assure、guarantee、pledge与promise这些动词都有“保证”之意。

ensure : 侧重使人相信某个行为或力量产生的结果。

  • The airline is taking steps to ensure safety on its aircraft.
    航空公司正在采取措施以确保其航班的飞行安全。
  • The role of the police is to ensure (that) the law is obeyed.
    警察的职责就是确保法律得到遵守。
  • Their 2–0 victory today has ensured the Italian team a place in the Cup Final/ensured a place in the Cup Final for the Italian team.
    今天意大利队2比0获胜,稳操胜券进入世界杯的决赛。

insure常与ensure换用,但前者多指经济方面的保证、保险。

  • The house is insured for two million dollars.
    该房子投保了200万英镑。
  • All our household goods are insured against accidental damage.
    我们家里所有的物品都保了意外损失险。
  • I'm not insured to drive his car.
    我没有相关的保险,不能开他的车。

assure : 侧重指消除某人思想上的怀疑或担心,从而有达到目的的保证感,但不如ensure普通。

  • The unions assured the new owners of the workers' loyalty to the company.
    工会向新企业主保证,工人们对公司是忠诚的。
  • "Don't worry, your car will be ready tomorrow," the mechanic assured him.
    “别担心,你的车明天就可以修好,”修理工向他保证。
  • She assured him (that) the car would be ready the next day.
    她向他保证说他的车第二天就能修好。
  • The prime minister assured the electorate (that) taxes would not be increased after the election.
    首相向选民保证选举后不会增税。
  • You can rest assured (= feel confident) that I shall be there as promised.
    你放心,我答应了就一定会到的。

guarantee : 指对事物的品质或人的行为及履行义务、义务等承担责任的保证。

  • European Airlines guarantees its customers top-quality service.
    欧洲航空公司保证为乘客提供最好的服务。
  • The label on this bread says it is guaranteed free of/from preservatives (= it contains no preservatives).
    这种面包的标签上写着保证不含防腐剂。

pledge : 正式用词,指通过郑重许诺、协议或立誓等保证承担某一义务或遵守某一原则。

  • We are asking people to pledge their support for our campaign.
    我们正请求人们承诺支持我们的运动。
  • If you join the armed forces, you have to pledge allegiance to your country.
    如果参军,你必须宣誓效忠你的祖国。
  • So far, £50,000 has been pledged (= people have promised to pay this amount) in response to the appeal.
    到目前为止,人们已承诺捐款5万英镑以响应这项呼吁。
  • Both sides have pledged to end the fighting.
    双方均已保证停战。
  • I've been pledged to secrecy.
    我已发誓保守秘密。

promise : 侧重表自己的主观意向,设法用语言使人感到稳当可靠。

  • He promised faithfully to call me every week.
    他信誓旦旦地保证每周都给我打电话。
  • The government have promised that they'll reduce taxes.
    政府已承诺要减税。
  • Promise me (that) you won't tell him.
    答应我你不会告诉他。
  • I'll look for some while I'm at the shops but I'm not promising anything.
    我逛街的时候找找,但不敢保证能买到。

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