区别辨析habit、custom、manners、usage、practice、convention与tradition

habit、custom、manners、usage、practice、convention与tradition这些名词均含有“习惯、风俗、传统”之意。

habit : 侧重于自然养成的,不易去掉的个人习惯。

  • I always buy the same brand of toothpaste out of (= because of) habit.
    我出于习惯总是买同一个牌子的牙膏。
  • I'm trying not to get into (= start) the habit of always having biscuits with my coffee.
    我尽量避免养成喝咖啡时总是吃饼干的习惯。
  • I used to swim twice a week, but I seem to have got out of (= ended) the habit recently.
    我过去每周游两次泳,但最近似乎打破了这个习惯。
  • I was taught to drive by my boyfriend and I'm afraid I've picked up (= caught) some of his bad habits.
    我是跟我男友学的开车,恐怕我已经染上了他的一些坏习惯。
  • I'm trying to get him to break (= end intentionally) the habit of switching on the TV when he comes home at night.
    我设法让他改掉晚上一回家就打开电视的习惯。
  • I don't mind being woken up once or twice in the middle of the night by my flatmate so long as she doesn't make a habit of it (= do it frequently).
    我不介意半夜里被同屋吵醒一两次,只要她不经常这样就行。
  • I'm not really in the habit of looking at (= I don't usually look at) other people's clothes, but even I noticed that awful suit!
    我没有观察别人衣着的习惯,可就连我都注意到了那身难看的套装!

custom : 指一个国家、一个民族、一个地区或一个社会的习惯、行为方式或风俗习惯。也可指个人的习惯。

  • a local/ancient custom
    当地的/古老的风俗
  • In my country, it's the custom (for women) to get married in white.
    在我国,女子结婚穿白衣是一种习俗。
  • He left the house at nine exactly, as is his custom.
    他9点准时离开了家,这是他的习惯。

manners : 指在某一时期或某一团体中盛行的社会礼仪或社会风俗模式。

  • He needs to be taught some manners.
    他需要学些礼仪。
  • It's bad manners to eat with your mouth open.
    张着嘴吃东西是不文雅的。
  • It's considered good manners in some societies to leave a little food on your plate.
    在某些社会中,人们认为盘中剩下少许食物是礼貌的表现。

usage : 指持续时间长,为很多人公认采纳的惯例、习俗。

  • the dictates and usages of polite society
    上流社会的规定和惯例

practice : 常指习惯性的做法或行为。

  • What can European companies learn from Japanese business practices?
    欧洲公司能从日本工商业的做法中学到些什么呢?
  • It's common practice in the States to tip the hairdresser.
    在美国通常要给理发师小费。
  • This is a cruel practice that should be banned immediately.
    这是个残忍的习俗,应该立即禁止。
  • What is standard practice (= what is usually done) in a situation like this?
    在这种情况下通常如何处理?
  • Newspaper editors have agreed to a new code of practice on the invasion of privacy.
    报社编辑们已同意在侵犯隐私的问题上采取新的行为准则。

convention : 多指约定俗成的行为方式规则或公认的标准,或指艺术上公认的技巧。

  • They defied/flouted/broke with convention by giving up their jobs and becoming self-sufficient.
    他们离经叛道,放弃了工作,开始过自给自足的生活。
  • Convention dictates that it is the man who asks the woman to marry him and not the other way round.
    根据习俗,应由男人向女人求婚而不是反过来。
  • In many countries it is the/a convention to wear black at funerals.
    在葬礼上穿黑色的衣服是许多国家的习俗。
  • an artistic convention
    传统艺术手法

tradition : 广义指世代相传的伦理、行为规范和生活方式,特指因长久奉行而几乎具有法律效力的习惯、习俗,侧重历史意义。

  • Fireworks have long been an American tradition on the Fourth of July.
    7月4日国庆日放焰火长期以来一直是美国人的传统。
  • Switzerland has a long tradition of neutrality.
    保持中立是瑞士长期以来的传统。
  • There's a tradition in our office that when it's somebody's birthday, they bring in a cake for all of us to share.
    我们办公室有个传统:当有人过生日时,就会带蛋糕来跟大家一起分享。
  • We decided to break with tradition (= not behave as usual) this year and go away for Christmas.
    今年我们决定打破传统,外出度圣诞节。
  • According to tradition, a headless ghost walks through the corridors of the house at night.
    据传说,晚上有个无头鬼走过这幢房子的走廊。

wechat-qrcode