小词详解 | expropriate

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小词详解 | expropriate
expropriate 英 [eksˈprəʊprieɪt] 美 [eksˈproʊprieɪt]

SAT TEM8

外刊例句

  • A contract to build a bypass was signed in 2005, but governments have failed to expropriate the necessary land.
    2005年政府曾签下工程合同,在此修建绕道公路,却未能成功征地。
    ——《经济学人》
  • If the two sides cannot agree, the commission could resort to eminent domain, which allows the state to expropriate private property for public use.
    若双方不能达成一致,该委员会可能会诉诸于国家征用权。后者允许政府征收私人地产用于公共用途。
    ——《纽约时报》

基本释义

[verb] (especially of the state) take away (property) from its owner
[动词] (尤指国家)从所有者手中拿走(财产)

深入解读

Expropriate 一词17世纪初逆构自名词 expropriation (15世纪中期指“舍弃世俗之物”),原指“放弃对……的专属财产的权利”,现主要表示“征用、没收”,多指政府或权力机构等无偿征用、没收私有土地、财产等用于公共用途,与 confiscate 用于惩罚目的的“充公”不同,比如:

  • 洪水期间当地政府征用了所有的卡车和拖拉机。
    The local government expropriated all the trucks and tractors during the flood.

无偿征用对于被充公者而言,也就意味着“剥夺了……的所有权”,比如:

  • 剥夺土地所有者的产业
    expropriate the landowners from their estates

之前小站在熟词僻义栏目中介绍过 appropriate 一词除了作形容词指“合适的、恰当的”以外,还可以作动词表示“盗用、挪用、占用、侵吞”。而 expropriate 也有一个类似的含义,即“侵占(他人财产)”,这种财产既可以是土地等有形的财产,也可以是创意等无形的财产,比如:

  • 剽窃(plagiarism)他人的主意来写文章
    expropriate sb's ideas for one's own article

另外上面说的名词 expropriation 发展到现在含义也随之演变为“征收、征用、没收”,比如下面权威用例就有用到。

权威用例

Property and assets of the Bank, wheresoever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from search, requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of taking or foreclosure by executive or legislative action.
银行的财产和资产,不论在何地和由何人所持有,均应免于任何行政或司法的搜查、征用、充公、没收或任何其他形式的占用或禁止赎回。

出自《亚洲基础设施投资银行协定》(The Articles of Agreement of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank)。

同近义词