区别辨析assert、affirm、allege、maintain、testify与claim

这些动词均含有“断言,声称”之意。

assert :主观意味强,指自认为某事就是如此,而不管事实如何。

  • Altman asserted, 'We were making a political statement about western civilisation and greed.'
    奥尔特曼坚称,“我们那时正要发表一份关于西方文明和贪婪的政治宣言。”

affirm :侧重在作出断言时表现出的坚定与不可动摇的态度。

  • Both sides affirmed their commitment to the ceasefire.
    双方均申明答应停火。
  • I can affirm that no one will lose their job.
    我可以肯定,谁都不会丢掉工作。

allege :多指无真凭实据,不提供证据的断言或宣称。

  • She alleged that there was rampant drug use among the male members of the group.
    她声称该团体中有大量的男性成员吸毒。

maintain与assert近义,但前者指坚决维护某种主张或观点。

  • He has maintained that the money was donated for international purposes.
    他坚称这笔捐款将用于国际用途。

testify :多指在法庭作证,庄严地宣称自己所说属实。

  • Several eyewitnesses testified that they saw the officers hit Miller in the face.
    几位目击证人证明他们看见那几个警官打了米勒的脸。

claim :可与assert换用,但语气弱一些,侧重指行为自己的权利提出要求他人承认。

  • He claims (that) he was not given a fair hearing.
    他声称他未得到公正的申述机会。

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